For these drugs, production in transgenic animals is a good option.
Using farm animals for drug production has many advantages because they are reproducible, have flexible production, are easily maintained, and have a great delivery method e. Synthetic Insulin : human insulin produced by recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant DNA technology not only allows therapeutic proteins to be produced on a large scale but using the same methodology protein molecules may be purposefully engineered.
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Genetic modifications introduced to a protein have many advantages over chemical modifications. Genetically engineered entities are biocompatible and biodegradable. The preparations do not contain residual amounts of harsh chemicals used in the conjugation process.
Bacterial expression systems, due to their simplicity, are often not able to produce a recombinant human protein identical to the naturally occurring wild type. Bacteria did not develop sophisticated mechanisms for performing post-translational modifications that are present in higher organisms. As a consequence, an increasing number of protein therapeutics is expressed in mammalian cells.
Production and Application of Proteins from Transgenic Plants
However the low cost and simplicity of cultivating bacteria is an unbeatable advantage over any other expression system and therefore E. Many mammalian proteins are produced by genetic engineering. These include, in particular, an assortment of hormones and proteins for blood clotting and other blood processes. TPA is primarily used in heart patients or others suffering from poor circulation to prevent the development of clots that can be life-threatening.
Heart disease is a leading cause of death in many developed countries, especially in the United States, so microbially produced TPA is in high demand. In the past hemophiliacs have been treated with clotting factor extracts from pooled human blood, some of which was contaminated with viruses such as HIV and hepatitis C, putting hemophiliacs at high risk for contracting these diseases. Recombinant clotting factors have eliminated this problem.
Skip to main content. Microbial Genetics. Search for:. Genetic Engineering Products Overview of Biotechnology Biotechnology is the use of biological techniques and engineered organisms to make products or plants and animals that have desired traits. Learning Objectives Describe the historical development of biotechnology. Key Takeaways Key Points For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine.
In the late 20th and early 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene technologies, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diganostic tests. Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care medical , crop production and agriculture, non food industrial uses of crops and other products e. Key Terms nanotechnology : the science and technology of creating nanoparticles and of manufacturing machines which have sizes within the range of nanometres.
Genetically modified organism
Applications of Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering means the manipulation of organisms to make useful products and it has broad applications. Learning Objectives Describe the major applications of genetic engineering. Key Takeaways Key Points Genetic engineering has applications in medicine, research, industry and agriculture and can be used on a wide range of plants, animals and microorganisms.
In medicine, genetic engineering has been used to mass-produce insulin, human growth hormones, follistim for treating infertility , human albumin, monoclonal antibodies, antihemophilic factors, vaccines, and many other drugs. In research, organisms are genetically engineered to discover the functions of certain genes. Industrial applications include transforming microorganisms such as bacteria or yeast, or insect mammalian cells with a gene coding for a useful protein.
Mass quantities of the protein can be produced by growing the transformed organism in bioreactors using fermentation, then purifying the protein.
Genetic engineering is also used in agriculture to create genetically-modified crops or genetically-modified organisms. Key Terms biotechnology : The use of living organisms especially microorganisms in industrial, agricultural, medical, and other technological applications. Organisms that have been manipulated using recombinant DNA technology, and products derived from those organisms have found their way into many farms, supermarkets, home medicine cabinets, and even pet shops.
Biochemical products of recombinant DNA technology in medicine and research include: human recombinant insulin, growth hormone, blood clotting factors, hepatitis B vaccine, and diagnosis of HIV infection. There are a number of recent comprehensive review articles pertaining to production technologies used for molecular farming in plants. Monoclonal antibodies mAbs have been critical both for the development of biotechnology itself and as products for both therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Traditional therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have been derived from mice. These proteins were readily identified by the human immune system as foreign, limiting the utility of these antibodies for therapeutic use, especially with repeated dosing.
However, recombinant technologies have allowed murine antibodies to be replaced with partially humanized or chimeric antibodies, and now allow the production of fully human antibodies. Currently, there are over a dozen FDA-approved mAbs, and as many as therapeutic Abs may be under development. Tobacco plants have been used extensively for antibody expression systems.
The Manufacture Of Medical And Health Products By Transgenic Plants by Esra Galun
However, several other plants have been used including potatoes, soybeans, alfalfa, rice and corn. Antibody formats can be full-size, Fab fragments, single-chain antibody fragments, bi-specific scFv fragments, membrane anchored scFv, or chimeric antibodies see Table 2. Transgenic soybeans are capable of producing humanized antibodies against herpes simplex virus GE corn reportedly is capable of producing human antibodies at yields of up to a kg per acre, 9 and has been demonstrated to preserve antibody function through five years of storage under ordinary conditions.
Antibodies derived from plants have a multitude of applications, including binding to pathogenic organisms, binding to serum or body fluid effector proteins e. However, plant glycosylation patterns differ from those in mammalian systems, and glycosylation is essential for antibody-mediated activation of complement or the initiation of cellular immune responses. While glycosylation sequences are poorly immunogenic and hence unlikely to precipitate immunological adverse reactions, 8 the presence of mammalian glycosylation sequences not required for therapeutic function may only serve to produce undesired complement- or cell-mediated side effects.
As of , four antibodies expressed in plants had shown potential to be useful as therapeutics. There has been considerable interest in developing low-cost, edible i. Plant vaccines can express entire selected proteins, but the use of DNA encoding only desired antigenic sequences from pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites has received considerable attention. Aside from intrinsic low production cost, plant-based vaccines offer a number of unique advantages, including increased safety, stability, versatility, and efficacy.
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Relevant antigens are naturally stored in plant tissue, and oral vaccines can be effectively administered directly in the food product in which they are grown, eliminating purification costs. Finally, the development of multi-component vaccines is possible by insertion of multiple genetic elements or through cross-breeding of transgenic lines expressing antigens from various pathogenic organisms.
There are, however, some limitations associated with the use of transgenic plants for vaccine production. Tight control of expression yields will likely be necessary to reduce variability and assure consistent, effective immunization.
During the last decade, nearly a dozen vaccine antigens have been expressed in plants Table 3. Transgenic lupin and lettuce plants can express hepatitis B surface antigen. A plant-based oral subunit vaccine for the respiratory syncytial virus RSV using either the apple or the tomato is under development. The plant species to be used for the production and delivery of an oral vaccine can be specifically selected to achieve desired goals.
A large number of food plants e. Corn, since it is a major component in the diet of the domestic animal, is a good candidate for vaccine production. In humans, particularly infants, the plant of choice to produce the vaccine might be the banana. Bananas are a common component of many infant diets and can be consumed uncooked, thus eliminating the possibility of protein denaturation due to high temperatures.
Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to create transgenic bananas and the production time is longer than for certain other food crops.
Overview of Biotechnology
Cereals and other edible plants are advantageous for vaccine production over plant species such as tobacco because of the lower levels of toxic metabolites. It is evident that there are numerous opportunities to identify and develop low-cost plant derived vaccine materials, including edible plant-based vaccines. A wide variety of other therapeutic agents have been derived from plants Tables 4 , 5 , including hormones somatotropin , enzymes, interleukins, interferons IFN and human serum albumin HSA. Modified rice plants are capable of producing human alphaantitrypsin, a protein that may realize therapeutic potential in emphysema and hepatic diseases.
Hirudin, originally isolated from leeches, is a blood anticoagulant that can now be expressed from oilseed rape, from tobacco and from mustard. Transgenic potato plants can encode for at least two subtypes of human INF, some of which may moderate certain cancers and diseases caused by viral agents. AMT, Agrobacterium- mediated transformation.