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These disorders are called "abiotic. One requirement for some plant diseases that the triangle fails to account for is a vector. If some organism, typically an insect or other animal, is necessary for the pathogen to complete its life cycle, this vector absolutely determines whether or not disease will occur. Many viruses and viroids fall into this category. But even when the vector is not critical for infection, but a major means of disease spread such as the elm bark beetle, which carries Dutch elm disease , the disease triangle is incomplete without this component.

Some have suggested inserting it in the line connecting the host and pathogen.

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Others have suggested including the human factor as another element of the triangle, but this may be a bit anthropocentric. We can facilitate disease by helping to bring the elements of the triangle together, but it happens without us in nature. Furthermore, humans are implicitly part of the host and its susceptibility through centuries of breeding, which in turn acts to alter the evolution of the pathogen.

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We constantly act to alter the environment as well. Adding an additional human element to the triangle is probably an unnecessary and redundant complication. In any case, this is how plant disease happens: A susceptible host meets a virulent pathogen in a conducive environment, and we witness disease. How will it appear? There may be symptoms, and there may be signs. In the former case, there is a discernible change in the plant itself, say a yellowing or tissue death or undifferentiated growth.

In the latter, the pathogen itself is visible, for instance as a conk appearing on a tree trunk or a bacterial mass oozing out of a stem. Avoiding the perilous confluence of host, pathogen, and environment means being aware that each factor changes over time. It can be useful to think of a third dimension where disease triangles are layered as the growing season progresses. An excellent illustration can be found in Francl Some important factors related to the time element are the latent period and the infectious period.

When a plant has been infected but has no symptoms, the disease is latent and will not be observable; but it is only a matter of time before disease erupts, followed for many pathogens by a period when additional inoculum such as spores are produced and may be dispersed to other hosts to start new infections. These infectious periods are important, because several may occur on a crop in one season, creating exponential growth in the disease.

Plant disease an advanced treatise Vol. I. How disease is managed.

Each spore may produce a lesion that itself makes thousands of new spores, each of these creates a similar infection, and so on until there is no healthy tissue left to infect! Introduction: Nematodes II. Simultaneous Inoculation III. Sequential Inoculation IV. Split-Root Inoculation V.

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Induced Protection VI. Mode of Action VII. Introduction: Insects IX.

Plant Responses to Insect Attack X. Proteinase Inhibitors XII. Objectives III. Viral Inducers against Diverse Challengers V. Examples of Hypovirulence III. Speculations on Sources of Hypovirulence Agents V. Biocontrol with Hyperparasites VI. About Scientists IV. About Plant Pathology V. About Writing IX. About Institutions X. Powered by. You are connected as. Connect with:. Use your name:.

Plant Disease: An Advanced Treatise - 1st Edition

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This volume discusses the great variety of techniques for the diagnosis of plant disease; crop destruction; and theory behind the art of disease management. It also explores topics on how society is constraining the possibilities for management; management of diseases through changing the environment; biological control of plant diseases; weed management through pathogens; and the epidemiologic and genetic concepts of managing host genes.

Subsequent chapter presents the management of plant disease with chemicals and some examples of diseases that benefit man and even a few that benefit plants. This book also describes the organization and operation of society-supported disease management activities, as well as important advisory services provided by the industry. This volume concludes with proposals for the education of the practitioners of plant pathology.

This work is intended for the advanced researcher in plant pathology to broaden his views, stimulate his thinking, and help to synthesize ideas. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit. If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website. Thanks in advance for your time. Skip to content.

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