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Hartley , William Redelius. Edition: 3rd ed. K ] 5. Hardcover with laminated pictorial boards, second edition, gms, pages.
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McGraw-Hill Education, No International ShippingGood condition. Used books doesn't include any access code, CD or other supplements. Good Condition. Binding was repaired. Has nice edges and corners. Marketing Research, 2nd Edition Hair, Jr. Joseph F. Very Good Condition. Some light handwriting. Light shelf and corner wear.
Some scuffing on front cover, but not enough to damage book. Some minor marking. Looks Nice. Shipped Weight: kilos. Marketing Research, 2nd Greive, Donald. The decision as to which distribution channel the organisation should seek to use falls into the realm of strategic marketing but actions within the chosen channels are operational in nature. Growers, processors and manufacturers have to market their products to, and not through, channel members. To the extent that channel members see themselves as anyone's agent, they are more likely to see themselves as agents of their customers rather than agents of product suppliers.
Implementing a marketing programme involves deciding on long, medium and short term activities for all marketing functions. Decisions have to be made on budgets, staffing levels, how to communicate the elements of the plan, coordination of activities and motivating people to carry out the plan.
All of this has to ensure marketing efficiency. Whilst too much planning can stifle flexibility and creativity, no planning is a recipe for disaster.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS – CHAPTER 6
It leads to ill conceived product and marketing strategies, enhancing the possibility of waste and inefficiency in a vital industry: the production and marketing of food. It is the task of management to ensure that the marketing plan is carefully monitored, evaluated and controlled.
Indeed authors such as Mockler 11 see no distinction between planning and control but view them instead as steps within the same cycle. Typical controls involve setting standards of performance, evaluating actual performance against standards and, if the deviations are intolerable, taking corrective action.
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Marketing planning can be seen as a cycle, which begins with clear objectives that set out what the marketer intends to achieve, and ending with a feedback mechanism in order that the objectives can be evaluated, a course of corrective action can be taken if there are deviations from plans and the organisation can monitor its usage of resources. Clearly any system of monitoring and control has to be implemented in accordance with organisational structure. That is, if there are SBUs, divisions or other business units that have a degree of autonomy and responsibility for the development of strategy and plans, then these must have their own systems of monitoring and control in place.
Marketing control involves setting a desired standard, measuring deviations from the standard and taking the appropriate action. In many cases the standard is expressed in terms of budgets and any substantial deviation from budget is investigated. Both positive as well as negative deviations can be a cause for concern. If sales are far in excess of planned levels then this can over-stretch the enterprise's production, storage and distribution resources, for example.
At the same time, the investigation of all deviations from budgeted levels would prove an unbearable load on managers. There are four types of marketing control: the annual plan control, profitability control, efficiency control and strategic control. Table 3. The different types of controls can be seen as a complementary and interlocking set of activities, as depicted in figure 3.
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The purpose of the annual plan control is to ensure that the company achieves the sales, profits and other goals established by the marketing plan. It is, therefore, an operational control plan. This type of control applies to all levels of the organisation and the process. Several measures may be taken in assessing performance in relation to the marketing plan, including sales analysis, market share analysis, marketing expenses to sales ratios, attitude tracking, profitability and efficiency.
Each of these will be briefly discussed. Actual sales can be compared to sales targets and budgets and an analysis of any variance between the two would be carefully examined. Sales analysis centres interest upon the relative contribution of different factors to a gap in sales performance. Say, for example, that the managing director of the National Canning Company is told by the marketing manager that sales are up half a million units on the target and that revenues are five percent above budget, this would be cause for celebration.
Or would it? Before answering this question the managing director would wished to look at these figures a little more analytically.
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The operating results might look those presented in table 3. It can readily be seen that, although sales have exceeded expectations, the planned price was not achieved and so the product made a lower contribution than expected. In this case the price mechanism would need investigating as would the estimates of market share. Whilst the Canning Company recorded an increase in sales of ten percent, the market as a whole was twenty percent above target.
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Seen in this light, there is more cause for concern than for celebration. From there consideration can be given to the underlying reason for that performance. Market share analysis shows how well the organisation is doing vis-a-vis competitors.