Manual Management of Persons Accidentally Contaminated With Radionuclides (N C R P Report)

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Craig Yoder Report No. Brief explanations of the terms radiation, ionizing radiation, and nonionizing radiation are given in the Glossary. To take advantage of the benefits of using radiation sources in these activities, it is necessary to provide radiation safety controls commensurate with the potential hazard. Since the sources of radiation used in many educational institutions usually produce only low radiation levels, the potential hazard to faculty, staff and students is usually correspondingly low when simple basic precautions are followed.

This Report is intended primarily for those institutions that do not need a full-time radiation safety professional because the uses and radiation levels of the sources are limited. In these instances, an individual with limited expertise in radiation safety e. Usually, this individual is called the radiation safety officer RSO. This individual may have other safety responsibilities in addition to radiation safety. Full-time RSOs may also find this Report helpful. Scientific Committee: Susan M. Langhorst, Chairman Edgar D.

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Bailey Mary L. Birch Susan J. Englehardt John R.

Goldin Kathryn A. Higley Joel O.

Lubenau John W. Luetzelschwab Kenneth L. Miller David S. Report No. The vast majority of these reported wounds have occurred in the proximal and distal phalanges of workers in facilities that process plutonium. Since the use of depleted uranium DU in military munitions has resulted in combat wounds with DU shrapnel.

In addition to contaminated wounds arising in industrial and military situations, medical use of radioactive material as a radiographic contrast agent has resulted in the development of granulomas at injection sites, a type of foreign-body reaction complicated by the radiation delivered to the site. Although numerous biokinetic and dosimetric models for intakes of radionuclides by inhalation and ingestion have been published, a comparable consensus model for intake via contaminated wounds has not, even though the total amount of activity associated with a contaminated wound is typically much larger than that associated with worker exposures via inhalation or ingestion.


Thus, in the mids NCRP in collaboration with the International Commission on Radiological Protection established a scientific committee tasked with developing such a wound model. The data have been used to derive the parameters of a comprehensive compartmental model for contaminated wounds, while the structure of the model itself is grounded in the biochemical and physiological response of the body to a wound. Information is also presented on the etiology of radionuclide-contaminated wounds, and the biological processes of wound healing, including foreign-body responses and carcinogenesis.

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Human data from occupational, military and medical exposures are provided to relate the animal data to human experience. Dose coefficients for local doses are presented, as is a summary of wound monitoring methodology. The development of systemic dose coefficients based on the wound model for all commonly encountered radionuclides is beyond the scope of this Report, but should be undertaken in the future. Finally, current procedures for the medical management of contaminated wounds are discussed. Scientific Committee: Bryce D. Daxon Patricia W. Durbin Ronald E. Goans Raymond A.

Guilmette John J. Russell Richard E. Toohey Fletcher F. This Report makes recommendations on explaining risks from therapeutic procedures and obtaining adequate, informed patient consent; dose limits for members of the patient's family; patient confinement in a hospital or skilled-care facility; and patient records including the radionuclide and activity used, the treating physician, and contact information.

Section 1 of Report No. This Section discusses the basic principles of both radiopharmaceutical therapy and brachytherapy.

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Section 2 deals with basic radiation safety principles in a medical facility and includes a description of the radiation safety program, dose limits, staffing and definitions specific to this Report. Section 3 addresses radiopharmaceutical therapy including both clinical and radiation safety aspects. Appendices A and B expand on the patient release criteria outlined in Section 3 and include a spreadsheet program for assisting in determining patient release instructions. Section 4 deals specifically with brachytherapy including techniques, terminology, and a brief discussion of applicable dosimetry.

Section 5 includes facility design for both nuclear-medicine and radiation-oncology installations. Section 6 describes changes in patients' status, including medical emergencies and includes guidelines for other situations that may be adapted to readers' facilities.

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Appendix C presents a discussion of quality-assurance requirements for high dose rate afterloading which is an increasingly useful modality. Appendix D outlines shielding requirements for high dose rate brachytherapy installations. Germain, Chairman Edward B. Silberstein Richard J. Vetter Jeffrey F. Williamson Pat D.

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Zanzonico Jerrold T. Bushberg, Liaison Sarah S. Donaldson, Liaison Report No. Current knowledge and concepts are described concerning sources, levels in the general environment and at selected U. Department of Energy sites, environmental transport processes, parameters and models, and the management or mitigation of contaminated environments. This Report does not represent a comprehensive and exhaustive treatise on cesium in the environment. Rather, it is intended to provide a general review of knowledge about sources and levels, natural processes that explain the highly varied behavior of radiocesium in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, guidance for choosing transport parameters for dose and risk assessment models, and practical approaches that have been used to mitigate the impacts of significant levels of contamination.

Uncertainties resulting from the use of generic parameters in environmental transport and exposure pathway models discouraged the adoption of specific parameters in this Report. Instead, the Report focuses on general environmental transport concepts and the ranges of parameter values that have been empirically measured or estimated in different situations.

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In many cases, the Report provides likely reasons for the wide ranges of parameter values that have been published. In practice, it is generally believed that site- and condition-specific measurements lead to the most credible assessments, so this approach is strongly recommended when possible. Scientific Committee: F. Ward Whicker, Chairman Charles T. Garten, Jr. David M. Hamby Kathryn A.

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Higley Thomas G. Hinton Daniel I. Kaplan David J. Rowan R.

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Gene Schreckhise Margaret M. MacDonell, Consultant John E. Current space radiation guidelines pertain only to missions in LEO and are not considered relevant for missions beyond LEO. Radiation protection in deep space is complicated because of the unique nature of the space radiation environment, which is unlike any radiation environment present on Earth or in LEO.

The Executive Summary lists the major information that is needed. A summary of all needed information is included in Section 8. Townsend, Chairman Gautam D.