Manual Drainage Geochemistry

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Ottesen, P. Stendal, P. Drainage Geochemistry in Glaciated Terrain A.


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Drainage Geochemistry in Arid Regions R. Wilhelm, D. Drainage Geochemistry in Contaminated Terrains D. Cooper, I.

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Drainage Geochemistry in Gold Exploration I. Nichol, M. Hale, W. Drainage Geochemistry in Uranium Exploration A. Coats, R. Leake, D. The considerable exploration success achieved by geochemistry over the last several decades - and still continuing - has provided both the basis and rationale for the Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry series, including Volume 6, Drainage Geochemistry in Mineral Exploration.

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With contributions from 25 experts of truly global professional experience in drainage geochemistry, this book is a thorough appraisal of the state of the art in the use of surface and sub-surface waters, stream and lake sediments, heavy minerals for mineral exploration in tropical rain forests, temperate glaciated terrains, mountain chains, arid deserts and regions of agricultural and industrial pollution.

Additional attention is given to gold and uranium exploration, and to the growing role of drainage geochemistry as a multi-purpose environmental mapping technique with applications in human health studies, ore deposit modelling and pollution monitoring. Data compilation for Neogene basalts in Anatolia by McNab et al. The authors included not only a fraction of an extensive data set for Neogene basalts but also more evolved compositions other than basalts. Moreover, a compilation of basalt geochemistry data throughout the Anatolia based only on longitudinal division without considering different tectonic units and geodynamic processes is an unrealistic attempt.

The recent paper with the title of Neogene uplift and magmatism of Anatolia: Insights from drainage analysis and basaltic geochemistry by McNab et al. The paper seems to serve a useful purpose for the understanding of uplift in the Anatolia using drainage systems. Despite the comprehensive approach on the drainage modeling for the Anatolia except some typing mistakes in the river names , the same effort is not valid for the compilation of basalt geochemistry data.

Environmental Geochemistry and Acid Rock Drainage

McNAB18 contains misleading interpretations regarding the volcanological and petrological evolution of Anatolia, due to insufficient and inconsistent data compilation. The authors reckoned that they compiled an extensive database of published basaltic samples to assess the relative importance of subduction and intraplate processes in generating Anatolian magmatism throughout Neogene times p. The authors refer to Schildgen et al. One of the main reasons of the debate is dividing Anatolia longitudinally into three regions as the western, the central, and the eastern Anatolia without considering the complex geodynamic and geologic processes in the evolution of Anatolia.

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This would probably be a more comprehensive and meaningful division of the widespread Anatolian volcanism for the sake of further petrological interpretations. The widespread volcanism in the CAVP initiated in the middle Miocene with some lava flows and widespread ignimbrite deposits and continued with the formation of several stratovolcanoes and numerous monogenetic volcanoes till the Holocene times Aydar et al. However, there is still no consensus on the petrological evolution of the CAVP e. Temel et al. The mildly alkaline basalts in the region are possibly derived from asthenospheric source i.

Our division at that point is only based on the geographic location, and therefore, it is important to note that the geodynamic and petrological evolution of the eastern part of the region should not be directly linked with the volcanism around Sivas. There is a clear younging trend in the EAVP volcanism from the north e. Even in some studies e. In addition, the orogenic signature in the trace element geochemistry of the EAVP volcanics also including basalts diminished through the south with the contribution of an asthenospheric source Ekici et al.

In the light of the information mentioned above, the petrological and geodynamic evolution of the Anatolia with a special reference to the basaltic volcanism is not a simple task and cannot be revealed only by the longitudinal grouping of the volcanics.

Our summary is also a simplification and probably not enough for the reader to understand the Anatolian volcanism in detail. Despite a good attempt to compile the geochemical data for the Anatolian basalts, McNAB18 had some critical mistakes in data compilation Data Set S3 that affect the scientific interpretations at a fundamental level. Therefore, filtering the data set using MgO contents without considering typical silica range for basalts in a strict sense might result in misleading interpretations for the scope of McNAB This will be discussed in the following parts in more detail.

The scarcity of a complete data set i. This certainly limits our knowledge on the petrological evolution of Anatolian volcanism but at least gives some crucial information for the temporal evolution of the volcanism. In addition, there are recent studies that provide new insight into the evolution of Anatolian volcanism e. Here we list some of the misleading interpretations stemming from erroneous data compilation in McNAB Figures 7eā€”7h of McNAB18 display the relationship between uplifted marine sediments and magmatism in different parts of the Anatolia.

In these figures, it seems that magmatism in these regions postdates the uplifting. Therefore, the black bar that indicates the time span of magmatism, especially in Figure 7f of McNAB18, should be extended to early Miocene, that is, the time of uplifting of marine sediments has been initiated.

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The reader can also refer to a recent paper by Kocaarslan and Ersoy , and references therein for further details on volcanism around Sivas region. In addition, the magmatism considered for the uplifting of Mut basin is not clear in Figure 7h. If the volcanism in the CAVP is also associated with this region, the figure should also be revised for the Mut basin.

Therefore, if the volcanism in central Anatolia was divided into different phases, the volcanism in the eastern and southwestern parts of the CAVP should also have been taken into consideration. In any case, one should attempt to group the volcanism based on different geodynamic settings around the central Anatolia where the volcanism should be defined separately to avoid possible misleading interpretations. The Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment G-BASE project sets out to map and establish the natural geochemical baseline of the British Isles by collecting stream sediment, water, soil and more recently vegetation samples at drainage sites throughout the UK.

The regional geochemical baseline data is important in order to understand our environment and to measure changes, whether they be natural or man-made. This baseline data of the surface environment also allows us to model the migration of elements and provides a reference point against which we can monitor change. For further reading and more detailed information download our G-BASE booklet or field procedures manual or publication by Johnson et al.

Stream sediments are our primary sample media and have been collected strategically since the beginning of the project in The project has covered the UK landmass as far as the River Thames at an average drainage density of 1 site per 1. Details on the sampling procedures are described in a field procedures manual ā€” to find a copy, please go to downloads. The project also collects water samples at each drainage site. These are collected before the stream bed has been disturbed.

Four different water samples are routinely collected - two filtered waters for major and trace elements and two unfiltered waters for pH, conductivity and alkalinity. Determinations on unfiltered samples are made at the field base shortly after collection. Find more details in our field manual or view and download geochemical maps of ph and conductivity in stream waters across Great Britain.

The routine collection of soil samples was introduced in and now forms part of the national capability to establish the regional geochemical baseline of the UK. Soils were introduced to the geochemical mapping programme in areas for poor drainage density and was coincident with the project working in the agriculturally important lowland areas of England. A knowledge of the natural regional soil geochemical baseline enables us to estimate the anthropogenic burden on soils in urban areas.

13 The Geochemical Process

Soils are very important sample media and have great relevance to recent environmental and soil protection policies. The adjacent map shows the current extent of G-BASE soil sample sites in the UK, including the distribution of urban soil sample sites. Visit BGS Onshore Geoindex to search for individual soil sample location of the urban areas sampled so far. Make sure the map theme is set to Geochemistry top right hand corner and one or all of the sample media are selected in the left hand panel.